The Sustainability Subcommittee of the Northwood Facilities Committee is submitting the following as guidance during design and construction of the reopening of Northwood High School.
We believe that pursuing these Guidelines will benefit Northwood by:
The Committee suggests using the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) System as a guide to best practices for implementation of the proposed Sustainability Guidelines.
Attached is a LEED Scorecard that identifies target credits with matching design goals for Northwood. The LEED Rating System 2.1 gives a more detailed description of each credit, requirements and standards, as well as suggested technologies and strategies, as defined by the US Green Building Council. A copy of the LEED 2.1 Rating System can be downloaded at http://www.usgbc.org/Docs/LEEDdocs/LEED_RS_v2-1.pdf.
Section 3 of this document provides some tailoring of the general LEED Guidelines to opportunities at Northwood. Although the LEED Guidelines provide valuable information, we do not anticipate gaining LEED certification because of the need for commissioning.
The Northwood Sustainability Committees suggestions are based on the following general goals:
We also propose measurable goals:
These Guidelines apply to the reopening project. A separate set of Guidelines has been prepared as a "master plan" for future phases and integration of green building into the school's curriculum.
3. Sustainability Guidelines for Northwood High School
Site û Water û Energy û Materials û Indoor Air Quality
3.5 Indoor Air Quality
The Northwood Sustainability Subcommittee contact is Leah Haygood at 301.593.1789, email@example.com.
BENEFITS OF DAYLIGHTING FOR STUDENTS
Recent studies show that daylighting in schools may significantly increase students' test scores and promote better health and physical development and can be attained without an increase in school construction or maintenance costs.
One study analyzed the test scores of more than 21,000 students in three school districts in California, Washington, and Colorado, using multivariate linear regression to control for other influences on student performance. These are profound results, which have been carried out under rigorous statistical controls. In one school district, students with the most daylighting in their classrooms progressed 20% faster on math tests and 26% faster on reading tests when compared to students in the least daylit classrooms. In the other two school districts, students in classrooms with the most daylighting were found to have 7% - 18% higher scores than those in the least. Another study compared test scores for students in three daylit schools in North Carolina to scores in the county school system as a whole and other new schools within the county. Test scores for over 1,200 students in daylit schools were compared to scores for the students in the county. The study showed that students who attended daylit schools outperformed the students in non-daylit schools by 5% -14%.
Two studies suggest that daylighting in classrooms can promote overall health and physical development. In a study of 90 Swedish elementary school students, researchers tracked behavior, health, and cortisol (a stress hormone) levels over the course of a year in four classrooms with varying daylighting levels. The results indicate work in classrooms without daylight may upset the basic hormone pattern, and this in turn may influence the children's ability to concentrate or cooperate, and also eventually have an impact on annual body growth and absenteeism.
In another study in Alberta, Canada, over a two-year period, children attending elementary schools with full spectrum light were compared with children in classrooms with conventional lighting. The results of the study suggest that the students in the full-spectrum lit classrooms had fewer days of absence per year as well as enhanced health effects. Daylighting allowed for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system to be downsized, which in turn reduced the noise levels in both the classrooms and library, thus enhancing the learning environment.
In addition, schools found that increasing the amount of daylighting in school design did not necessarily represent an increase in school construction and operation costs. Incorporating design components such as light sensors, and optimizing mechanical and electrical systems due to reduced cooling and lighting loads, can actually reduce the initial capital cost because of the reduced size and cost of HVAC equipment. Furthermore, the operations and maintenance costs are reduced due to a smaller electrical load and a smaller number of lighting fixtures to maintain. In a study conducted in daylit schools in North Carolina, investments in daylighting could be paid back within three to nine years. For five daylit schools in North Carolina, authors of the study state that "the cost of the daylighting components have added little to the first-cost of the projects." Therefore, optimizing daylighting in the construction of new schools is an attractive option to potentially improve the performance and health of America's students.